cultural relativism thesis statement

Essay Preview. The Theme of Prejudice in To Kill a Mockingbird 'To Kill a Mocking Bird' teaches us about the deceit and prejudice amongst the residents of .

Unless they are recorded or broadcast, presentations have a more clearly defined audience than papers: They address "the people in the room," here and now. The audience might still be diverse, but less so than for papers. Papers can be forwarded in unpredictable ways and may be read many years from now, so they should be lasting and largely self-contained.

In contrast, presentations can have more specific purposes. For example, a presentation at a conference normally aims to present recent advances, whereas a presentation at a Ph. Structure To structure your presentation, you can print the form shown here and write your ideas for each component in the spaces provided. Focus on identifying the content you will present: do not write down the full sentences you will actually say.

Presentation for Dissertation Proposal Defense

All rights reserved. Whereas papers can be read in any order and at the reader's own pace, presentations impose both the sequence and the rhythm of content on their audience.

They are therefore harder to follow and should be much more selective in what they contain. The idea is not to say out loud everything that is already written in the proceedings paper or dissertation. Written documents are for convincing with detailed evidence; oral presentations, on the other hand, are for convincing with delivery — both verbal and nonverbal. Finally, presentations normally include interaction in the form of questions and answers.

This is a great opportunity to provide whatever additional information the audience desires. For fear of omitting something important, most speakers try to say too much in their presentations. A better approach is to be selective in the presentation itself and to allow enough time for questions and answers and, of course, to prepare well by anticipating the questions the audience might have. As a consequence, and even more strongly than papers, presentations can usefully break the chronology typically used for reporting research. Instead of presenting everything that was done in the order in which it was done, a presentation should focus on getting a main message across in theorem-proof fashion — that is, by stating this message early and then presenting evidence to support it.

Identifying this main message early in the preparation process is the key to being selective in your presentation. For example, when reporting on materials and methods, include only those details you think will help convince the audience of your main message — usually little, and sometimes nothing at all.

John's opening All three speakers John, Marie, and Jean-luc closed their presentations with a review, a conclusion, and a close. Because he divided his presentation's body in two fairly separated parts, John reviews and concludes each separately, thus merging review and conclusion. In contrast, Marie has a more detailed conclusion, in which she shows the outcome of her work visually.

In its intent and structure, the opening of an oral presentation is similar to the Introduction of a scientific paper, which provides the context , need , task , and object of the document , with three main differences:. In other words, include the following five items in your opening: attention getter , need , task , main message , and preview.

Marie's outline Marie structured her presentation around three main points and, for each, she included either two or three subpoints. At the end of her opening, she previews her main points only because the audience cannot assimilate more than one level at a time ; then, as she starts each main point, she previews the corresponding subpoints. To make your body's structure easy to remember, for both you as a speaker and your audience, think of it as a tree or hierarchy rather than a chain. Identify two, three, four, or a maximum of five statements you can make to support your main message: These are your main points.

Next, think of two to five statements to support each main point: These are your subpoints. Together, these main points and subpoints represent about as much detail as your audience can absorb in a single oral presentation. Even if you think of your presentation's body as a tree, you will still deliver the body as a sequence in time — unavoidably, one of your main points will come first, one will come second, and so on. Organize your main points and subpoints into a logical sequence, and reveal this sequence and its logic to your audience with transitions between points and between subpoints.

As a rule, place your strongest arguments first and last, and place any weaker arguments between these stronger ones. John's closing All three speakers John, Marie, and Jean-luc closed their presentations with a review, a conclusion, and a close. After supporting your main message with evidence in the body, wrap up your oral presentation in three steps: a review , a conclusion , and a close. First, review the main points in your body to help the audience remember them and to prepare the audience for your conclusion. Next, conclude by restating your main message in more detail now that the audience has heard the body and complementing it with any other interpretations of your findings.

Finally, close the presentation by indicating elegantly and unambiguously to your audience that these are your last words. The first few sentences and last few sentences of an oral presentation are particularly important because they shape the first and last impressions you make on your audience. They are also particularly difficult since they correspond to moments of transition starting and ending during which your stage fright is likely to peak.

Thus, they deserve special attention. At the beginning of any presentation, you must get the attention of the audience — and you must do so quickly.


Whether audience members are still happily chatting or already silent for example, because a chairperson introduced you , they are not yet engaged. As with a paper, you can spark their interest for your research by stating the need for your work, but you must first secure their full attention with an attention getter.

An effective attention getter can take many forms: It can be a question, a statement, an anecdote humorous or not , an analogy, a quotation, an object, a picture projected on the screen, and so on. Whatever its form, it has three qualities:.

  1. my dissertation presentation outline slide.
  2. Dissertation oral defense presentation.
  3. Request Information.

At the end of a presentation, you must indicate elegantly yet unambiguously to the audience that you have said your last words, thus giving them the signal to applaud. Although there are many ways to do so, one that works well is to make the link back to your attention getter: By referring back to your initial question, analogy, picture, etc. In contrast, beware of conventional yet extrinsic closes.

Your attention getter and close should be your very first words and very last words, respectively. Resist the temptation to preface your attention getter with filler words "well, um, so, yes" or unnecessary courtesies "Good morning everyone. Let me first thank the organizers for. To make sure you start and end your presentation sharply, you might want to learn your first few and last few sentences by heart.

To be able to give their full attention to content, audience members need structure — in other words, they need a map of some sort a table of contents, an object of the document, a preview , and they need to know at any time where they are on that map. A written document includes many visual clues to its structure: section headings, blank lines or indentations indicating paragraphs, and so on. In contrast, an oral presentation has few visual clues. Therefore, even when it is well structured, attendees may easily get lost because they do not see this structure.

As a speaker, make sure you reveal your presentation's structure to the audience, with a preview , transitions , and a review. The preview provides the audience with a map. As in a paper, it usefully comes at the end of the opening not too early, that is and outlines the body, not the entire presentation. In other words, it needs to include neither the introduction which has already been delivered nor the conclusion which is obvious.

In a presentation with slides, it can usefully show the structure of the body on screen. A slide alone is not enough, however: You must also verbally explain the logic of the body. In addition, the preview should be limited to the main points of the presentation; subpoints can be previewed, if needed, at the beginning of each main point. Transitions are crucial elements for revealing a presentation's structure, yet they are often underestimated.

How to Prepare for the Oral Defense of Your Thesis/Dissertation

As a speaker, you obviously know when you are moving from one main point of a presentation to another — but for attendees, these shifts are never obvious. What breakthroughs have you made to the field? Why are your methods and outcomes outstanding? You need to incorporate answers to these questions in your presentation. The two slides below are two examples. Xiaoju Chen Defense Slides with Notes. Plus, there could be researchers from other fields and even the general public in the room. You want to make sure all of your audience can understand as much as possible.

Focus on the big picture rather than technical details; make sure you use simple language to explain your methods and results. Your committee has read your dissertation before your defense, but others have not. Velibeyoglu did a good job explaining their research to everyone. The introduction sessions in their presentations are well designed for this purpose. Laren M. Cook Defense Slides with Notes.

Irem Velibeyoglu Defense with Notes. You may use a slide that is designed for this purpose throughout your presentation. You can also use some other indications on your slides, but remember not to make your slides too busy. Below are two examples. In the first example, the presenter used chapter numbers to indicate what he was talking about.

If you keep forgetting the transition sentence, write a note on your presentation.